The Future of Research Communications and e-Scholarship


Attributes of an interoperable annotation

Summarizes results of discussions on interoperability from the Kick off Meeting.

(The following adapted from the meeting summary by Brooks Hanson):

An interoperable annotation layer should enable organized, connected, curated, enrichment layers for all curated online content that allows:

  • Open but standard framework that allows/supports/enables enrichment by community and global discovery to the extent possible.
  • Granular annotations for online elements (html text, images, data, PDF, epub, etc.)
  • Discovery and linking of annotations across different content instances (html vs. pdf)
  • Public, private, group, private group, and authoritative or branded conversations and ability to evolve permissions on selected annotations
  • Selection by both content creators and users
  • Common identification of private conversations
  • Follow/notification
  • Classifications and endorsements, including authoritative endorsement
  • Identities and management of identities among systems
  • Discovery and linking of annotations across multiple versions of content—for scholarly research across multiple repositories, preprints, etc.
  • Persistence as content changes/evolves to new versions.
  • Support for the notion of the “clean page”, letting readers choose which annotations to layer in.
  • Standard identifiers and metadata that allow sharing, discovery, and connections across multiple repositories and implementations and organizing annotations for specified uses
  • People identifiers within groups and globally (SSO including with ORCID), w/ Twitter, other SM groups
  • Tags that help filter, sort, identify annotations by date, relevance, topic…factual annotations vs. comments  (pragmatic vs. true semantic interoperability)
  • Consistently identified regardless of where created
  • Many different clients that support basic functionality
  • Rich connections to other online resources
  • Portability across hosting services
  • Automatic linking of other resources and discussions (e.g., Altmetrics/Mendeley/ResearchGate/F1000/PubPeer/git/Trellis)?
  • Fully accessible (508 compliant)
  • Further mining and analysis
  • Automated/programmatic annotations/tagging/reference annotations



Maryann Martone

Maryann Martone

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